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Maritime Forum

TOPIC: The Hard Reality of the Ship Breaking Industry

The Hard Reality of the Ship Breaking Industry 24 Aug 2015 12:42 #4431

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More than 80% of international trade in goods by volume is transportedby ships. In 1960, the global inventory of ocean-going vessels was about15,000, and, by 2008, that number had soared to more than 97,000. Thesevessels include oil tankers, bulk carriers, general cargo carriers, container ships, and passenger vessels.
Like everything in today's society, once a vessel is no longer useful orrepairable, it is sent off to the local junkyard. But what or where is thelocal junkyard for ocean-going vessels? What does one do with an old ship?
The answer to these questions is most likely a quiet bay with a shallowsandy beach in a developing country for "shipbreaking," a process in whicha ship is dismantled into its valued components.
A typical ship can provide tons of steel and iron, useful heavyequipment such as cranes and winches, or electronic equipment—all ofwhich are potentially valued commodities. However, there are also amyriad of other less desirable "waste" materials generated during thedismantling process. These include hazardous wastes such as toxic paints,asbestos, polychlorinated organic compounds (PCBs), lead and mercury,radioactive wastes, electronic wastes, and trash such as furniture, wood, andplastics.
While most of the western world has strict regulations on themanagement of the shipbreaking process to ensure proper handling of thewaste materials generated, most developing countries lack or fail toadequately enforce such regulations.
The reasons for this disparity vary;however, the most common reason is the developing country's need for theresources and economic value from the materials yielded by the ships.
Unfortunately, the real costs for the lack of effective regulations are borneby the cheap local labour, uninformed communities, and the environment.
This Forum will address and discuss with its readers the growing issue of shipbreaking, its impactson developing nations and the global environment, and the critical need for improved international laws and many research papers and reports are referred for this purpose, especially the one by written Holly.H.Hillier.
Your comments and views are most desired to make a point in the Global Maritime community.
TOPIC1 :WHAT IT SHOULD BE CALLED, RECYCLING OR SHIPBREAKING?
Almost every part of a ship can be reused or recycled in theory, whichwould make ship recycling the accurate term for the dismantling process.
Hence, ship recycling should be a vital element in any sustainabledevelopment strategy, since it provides employment, raw materials, andeconomic benefits.
Even the Baltic and International MaritimeCouncil (BIMCO), one of the world's largest private shipping nongovernmentalorganizations, stated that ‘ship recycling is a green industry and the most environmentally friendly process of disposing of ships, ifmanaged properly.’
It is this last condition—if managed properly—that has proven to be thechallenge. Starting with the ship building process, the construction of shipsdoes not take into account the final dismantling procedure. Hence, a toxiccocktail of hazardous, carcinogenic, or environmentally harmful materialshave often been used in the construction of these vessels, especially thosebuilt between the 1960s and the 1980s.
It is these materials that make shiprecycling problematic and raise the question of whether the process is trulyship recycling or simply shipbreaking. By and far, the ability to separate the desired resources from the hazardous elements has proven to be a challengebecause the segregation is very labour intensive and can be dangerous orunsafe for workers.'" Consequently, most ships are broken down into theirusable components only, leaving the hazardous materials to take care ofthemselves—resulting in releases of these materials into the environmentand exposure to the workers and the host communities.
Thus, in mostdeveloping countries, the process is better labelled shipbreaking, since it isstrictly the act by which a ship is rendered into its reusable components.
TOPIC 2:THE SHIPBREAKING PROCESS
Shipbreaking is the process of dismantling an obsolete ocean-goingvessel for scrap and reusable parts, while disposing of the remainingunwanted materials.
The process is currently performed using one of twoapproaches—the dry dock method or the beaching method.
The dry dockmethod is the primary process by which most western countries scrap sea vessels. It involves bringing the ship into a dry dock or controlled quaysidefacility where any pollutants can be captured and contained. Once the shipis docked, it is broken into large pieces that are then sent to other areas forfurther processing.
The beaching method is used throughout thedeveloping world, most extensively in India and Asia. This processinvolves literally beaching the vessel under its own power at high tide. Asthe tide recedes, the ship is laid down on its flat bottom on the exposedbeach and then the manual process of demolition begins.
Either processincludes a wide range of activities, from removing the machinery andgutting the ship, to the final cutting down of the actual structure of the vessel.
The shipbreaking process was first developed in the United States (US),Great Britain, and Japan following World War II in response to the urgentneed for steel for the booming post-war economy and as a way to recyclethe large volume of war-damaged ships now requiring disposal.
Over thefollowing decades, global shipping volume increased from 15,000 shipsexisting globally in 1960 to more than 97,000 in 2008, which, in turn,fuelled significant growth in the demand for shipbreaking.
The types ofvessels sent for demolition vary from oil tankers, bulk carriers, generalcargo, and container ships to passenger ships. Additionally, during thiscurrent time of economic recession and international trade stagnation, thereis an overcapacity in the freight market and, therefore, more ships are sentto the scrap yard.
The trend to dismantle ships abroad does not appear to be abating; infact, there is currently an increasing number of ships which will be destinedfor the world's shipbreaking yards.
In April 2001, the InternationalMaritime Organization (IMO) and the European Union (EU) promulgatedregulations requiring all single-hulled tankers to be retrofitted or replacedwith ships containing two hulls by 2015. However, this original timelinewas accelerated following the destruction of a single-hull oil tanker off the shore of Spain in 2002. Since that disastrous event, some vessel typeshave been required to begin the replacement process as early as 2005.
Today, companies sell their unwanted ships at the best price fordismantling through brokers operating in cities such as London, Dubai, Singapore, and Hamburg.
Sea vessels are sold by the ton at a price rangingfrom 100 to 400 U.S. dollars, depending on the markets for the componentmaterials and the type of vessel.
The developing nations in South Asia'sshipyards (better to call them ‘scrapyards’, as shipyard is generally that facility where ship construction is done) are the main destination for demolition. In 2009, of the 1,006vessels sent for demolition, 435 were sent to India (43%), 214 toBangladesh (21%), 173 to China (17%), 87 to Pakistan (9%), and 42 toTurkey (4%), leaving 6% for the remaining shipyards.
Alang-Sosiya Ship Breaking Yard (ASSBY) in India and Chittagong inBangladesh are the world's biggest shipbreaking/recycling yards, withChina in close pursuit. Ships arrive at these shipyards mostly fromEurope, Japan, and North America.
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The Hard Reality of the Ship Breaking Industry 04 Sep 2015 12:19 #4433

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WHAT IT SHOULD BE CALLED, RECYCLING OR SHIPBREAKING?
Almost every part of a ship can be reused or recycled in theory, whichwould make ship recycling the accurate term for the dismantling process.
Hence, ship recycling should be a vital element in any sustainabledevelopment strategy, since it provides employment, raw materials, andeconomic benefits.
Even the Baltic and International MaritimeCouncil (BIMCO), one of the world's largest private shipping nongovernmentalorganizations, stated that ‘ship recycling is a green industry and the most environmentally friendly process of disposing of ships, ifmanaged properly.’
It is this last condition—if managed properly—that has proven to be thechallenge. Starting with the ship building process, the construction of shipsdoes not take into account the final dismantling procedure. Hence, a toxiccocktail of hazardous, carcinogenic, or environmentally harmful materialshave often been used in the construction of these vessels, especially thosebuilt between the 1960s and the 1980s.
It is these materials that make shiprecycling problematic and raise the question of whether the process is trulyship recycling or simply shipbreaking. By and far, the ability to separate the desired resources from the hazardous elements has proven to be a challengebecause the segregation is very labour intensive and can be dangerous orunsafe for workers.'" Consequently, most ships are broken down into theirusable components only, leaving the hazardous materials to take care ofthemselves—resulting in releases of these materials into the environmentand exposure to the workers and the host communities.
Thus, in mostdeveloping countries, the process is better labelled shipbreaking, since it isstrictly the act by which a ship is rendered into its reusable components.
The administrator has disabled public write access.

The Hard Reality of the Ship Breaking Industry 18 Sep 2015 07:35 #4434

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THE SHIPBREAKING PROCESS
Shipbreaking is the process of dismantling an obsolete ocean-goingvessel for scrap and reusable parts, while disposing of the remainingunwanted materials.
The process is currently performed using one of twoapproaches—the dry dock method or the beaching method.
The dry dockmethod is the primary process by which most western countries scrap sea vessels. It involves bringing the ship into a dry dock or controlled quaysidefacility where any pollutants can be captured and contained. Once the shipis docked, it is broken into large pieces that are then sent to other areas forfurther processing.
The beaching method is used throughout thedeveloping world, most extensively in India and Asia. This processinvolves literally beaching the vessel under its own power at high tide. Asthe tide recedes, the ship is laid down on its flat bottom on the exposedbeach and then the manual process of demolition begins.
Either processincludes a wide range of activities, from removing the machinery andgutting the ship, to the final cutting down of the actual structure of the vessel.
The shipbreaking process was first developed in the United States (US),Great Britain, and Japan following World War II in response to the urgentneed for steel for the booming post-war economy and as a way to recyclethe large volume of war-damaged ships now requiring disposal.
Over thefollowing decades, global shipping volume increased from 15,000 shipsexisting globally in 1960 to more than 97,000 in 2008, which, in turn,fuelled significant growth in the demand for shipbreaking.
The types ofvessels sent for demolition vary from oil tankers, bulk carriers, generalcargo, and container ships to passenger ships. Additionally, during thiscurrent time of economic recession and international trade stagnation, thereis an overcapacity in the freight market and, therefore, more ships are sentto the scrap yard.
The trend to dismantle ships abroad does not appear to be abating; infact, there is currently an increasing number of ships which will be destinedfor the world's shipbreaking yards.
In April 2001, the InternationalMaritime Organization (IMO) and the European Union (EU) promulgatedregulations requiring all single-hulled tankers to be retrofitted or replacedwith ships containing two hulls by 2015. However, this original timelinewas accelerated following the destruction of a single-hull oil tanker off the shore of Spain in 2002. Since that disastrous event, some vessel typeshave been required to begin the replacement process as early as 2005.
Today, companies sell their unwanted ships at the best price fordismantling through brokers operating in cities such as London, Dubai, Singapore, and Hamburg.
Sea vessels are sold by the ton at a price rangingfrom 100 to 400 U.S. dollars, depending on the markets for the componentmaterials and the type of vessel.
The developing nations in South Asia'sshipyards (better to call them ‘scrapyards’, as shipyard is generally that facility where ship construction is done) are the main destination for demolition. In 2009, of the 1,006vessels sent for demolition, 435 were sent to India (43%), 214 toBangladesh (21%), 173 to China (17%), 87 to Pakistan (9%), and 42 toTurkey (4%), leaving 6% for the remaining shipyards.
Alang-Sosiya Ship Breaking Yard (ASSBY) in India and Chittagong inBangladesh are the world's biggest shipbreaking/recycling yards, withChina in close pursuit. Ships arrive at these shipyards mostly fromEurope, Japan, and North America.
The administrator has disabled public write access.
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