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Nautical Science

Study material and Knowledge files related to Nautical Science for the Marine Navigators, like ROR,Chart work,Cargo work, Ship Handling, etc.

Tender vessels in the United States will soon need to comply with new safety regulations as mandated by the Coast Guard Authorization Act of 2010. This thesis focuses specifically on assisting in the formation of an Alternative Safety Compliance Program (ASCP) for the unique tender vessel fleet and seeks to understand why tender vessels experience fatalities and vessel casualties. By analyzing data of tendermen fatalities and tender vessel casualties between 2000 and 2012, this report sheds light on the realities of these incidents. Among other findings, the data show that the most common cause of vessel casualty was striking rocks or the ocean floor, and most common human error was falling asleep at the helm. This thesis then proposes potential regulations that would be economically feasible and realistic for tenders by comparing the casualty data to the reported financial realities of current tender vessels. Notably, the analysis indicates that applying the current Alternative Compliance and Safety Agreement (ACSA) to tenders would not be beneficial. Ultimately, the proposed regulations herein should act as a foundation for a discussion regarding an alternative compliance agreement, as the final agreement will be reached through a much greater dialogue between many involved parties, including tendermen, regulators, safety compliance experts, and others.

A 20 Paged paper on the subject about the history,purpose and modalities of the Convention.

This dissertation(published in the year 2000) investigates mandatory traffic control in the Singapore Strait using the Singapore Vessel Traffic Information System (VTIS) as a model. The three littoral States i.e. Singapore, Indonesia and Malaysia have introduced many safety measures to enhance safety of navigation in the Singapore Strait. In addition, the Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore has established VTIS to provide information and navigational assistance to shipmasters, as well as warnings when there is a potential risk of close quarter situations.

Due to the introduction of new technology on the bridge, the navigator’s working environment and navigational tools have changed. In this dissertation, several safety issues related to the application of hi-tech equipment have been discussed. In order to provide an alternative in the event of failure of hi-tech equipment the importance of traditional navigational skills has been restated. All SOLAS ships are supposed to have been fitted with AIS by 1 July 2004 in an accelerated schedule due to the events of “9/11”. With little knowledge of AIS’s capabilities and limitations on collision avoidance and situation awareness, navigators have to use AISs to improve safety. This has brought deep safety concerns related to watch keeping and collision avoidance. Several potential risks of using AIS have been discussed in the paper. Currently there are no relevant IMO conventions, regulations, resolutions, and guidelines that directly stress AIS training. However there are certain provisions in some instruments that indirectly refer to AIS training. The importance of faithful interpretation of these provisions has been stated to develop an effective AIS training syllabus and to organize efficient AIS training both on board and on shore. The limitation of current AIS training, which is current carried out on board mainly by self-study with a manufacturer-provided CD, has been examined. Also, on shore training has been discussed and its limitations are defined. At the end of this paper(submitted in 2004), recommendations and an AIS training syllabus are proposed.

This dissertation (awarded in 2005) considers the impact of the emerging security regime enshrined in the ISPS Code and the relevant amendments to SOLAS Convention, 1974 on the doctrine of seaworthiness. The momentary aspect of seaworthiness is reflected in case law, through the position taken by the courts when dealing with claims involving allegations of unseaworthiness and lack of due diligence. While relevance of the ISM Code to the assessment of seaworthiness of a ship is demonstrated, the undertaking of seaworthiness upon the company as defined in the ISPS Code is analyzed with respect to security requirements. As there has yet to be any ISPS Code related cases, the absolute obligation of seaworthiness according to the English law, is dealt with through a hypothetical scenario. The concept of due diligence within the security regime is discussed with reference to the development of the Ship Security Plan (SSP). The relevance of the port facility to the equation of seaworthiness is also considered. Other issues considered are the limitation of liability and the relevance of soft law to seaworthiness. As the breach of the undertaking of seaworthiness may lead to loss of cover, the implications of the security regime are discussed. Pending harmonization of the law in marine insurance law, reference is made respectively to Marine Insurance Act 1906 and to the continental Norwegian Marine Insurance Plan 1996. A few recommendations are made to assist companies in fulfilling their undertaking of seaworthiness.

Having analyzed human elements affecting the full capabilities of AIS, this dissertation talk about the main concerns to be incorporated in the application and development of AIS. Recommendations are given for the effective combination of human elements and the better use of this navigational aid.

To obey the doctrine of good seamanship requires not the absolute perfect seaman who takes every, even the most unlikely, cause of accident into account. An error in judgment by the crew does not automatically lead to a negligent act if that error was within the standard of good and prudent seamanship. Good seamanship does not expect by him to foresee any cause. Otherwise a self regulating system like ISM Code would be dispensable. Finally the judgment has to be based on facts. The highest degree of nautical conduct is to be considerate of the danger to other ships.

Thereto counts warning other ships which one’s own ship endangers due to her own difficulties. International Convention does not explicitly oblige a crew to apply available modern technical aids; this is a duty of good seamanship. Also, ship management has to use shore-based technical aids to mitigate the risk of collisions. Particularly the development of the Electronics Chart and Display Information System (ECDIS) shows the influences of technology in regard to the determination of good seamanship.

According to some statistics it can be seen that 49 % of the attacks against maritime targets have been carried out through the use of small boats during last eight years, due to its easy deployment, low maintenance and operational costs and high success record; terrorists actions have implied millions of dollars in ship repairs and billions of dollars in the application of security measures. It must be highlighted and considered that according to intelligence reports, there are several terrorist organizations with maritime capability around the world, and the interest recognized by al-Qaeda in not only destroying shipping; but also in using vessels to close maritime lanes and to conduct sea borne mass casualty attacks.

The “small boat threat” against shipping is a real one and must be addressed and eliminated as soon as possible; unless these criminal situations are attacked by a united front, the small boats will continue operating below the radar threatening international shipping.

The dissertation is a brief investigation into the aspects of technology design regarding the seafarer and how the training of the seafarer on that technology is considered and carried out. The area of study is the bridge of a vessel, the bridge team management and the technology applied on it, specially the current integrated systems. Aspects of how technology and automation in particular have changed the role of the Officers Of the Watch (OOW) regarding the task they need to perform, have been approached. Particular attention has been given to the human characteristics when interacting with this type of technology

Coal is a sedimentary rock that is formed by the burial of plant and animal remains in swamps, which are subjected to major transformation processes due to increased temperature and pressure during geological periods. Unburnt coal is considered a significant source of energy not only for its abundance but also due to its low cost. Even though coal is mainly used in electricity generation, it has other important applications such as its use in steel, cement and fuel production, among others. Nonetheless, this mineral chiefly formed by organic and inorganic constituents, contains some compounds and elements, which can be potentially toxic such as trace metals and the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs).

By SELLAKKANNU I. ABUL KALAM AZAD | The dissertation is a study, to examine the need for the establishment of traffic management solutions along the West coast of India and Sri Lanka, to identify the critical areas of the coastline which require urgent attention because of traffic density as well as environmental sensitivity and to propose suitable solutions to manage the shipping traffic in this region safely and effectively.

Furthermore, it is a study on the feasibility of implementation of Marine Electronic Highway system along-with futuristic e-Navigation concepts as an overarching solution for this region, similar to the IMO led pilot project being implemented in the Straits of Malacca and Singapore. Moreover, it has revisited the historical evolution of Maritime Traffic Management (MTM) solutions till date. Emerging trends have also been reviewed.

By JOSEPH AKWASI KUMA | The dissertation is an assessment of the role of the VTMIS in enhancing efforts to bring down maritime security in the threats in the Gulf of Guinea in West Africa focusing on Ghana. According to the International Maritime Organisation (IMO), Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) is implemented by a Competent Authority to improve the safety and efficiency of vessel traffic and to protect the environment. Technological development today has led to significant improvements in vessel traffic service. Vessel Traffic Management Information Service is the integration of Management information systems to improve the quality of vessel traffic services. Vessel traffic services essentially are used for information services, navigational assistance services, traffic organisation services, and similar allied services. Increasingly, threats to maritime safety and security in the Gulf of Guinea area are becoming major issues in the world. This study investigated the role of the VTMIS in Ghana in enhancing and combating maritime security threat such as piracy, smuggling and trafficking, in the Gulf of Guinea area. The study collected primary qualitative data from respondents from agencies in Ghana that uses information from the VTMIS for the assessment. It also relied on secondary data from the IMO and Ghana Maritime Authority on incidence of piracy in the Gulf of Guinea. The study revealed that VTMIS in Ghana contributes significantly to security of offshore installations in Ghana. It also reveal that Ghana’s VTMIS contributes significantly in monitoring and reporting maritime security issues in the Gulf of Guinea area.

By SUN-BAE HONG | The dissertation aims to evaluate how and to what extent e-navigation contributes to reducing accidents for SOLAS ships as well as non-SOLAS ships, hoping that the results are referred to IMO Member States when they are implementing enavigation along with the maritime sectors such as shipping companies, crews on board ships and manufactures developing e-navigation related systems. The study focuses on the potential effects of e-navigation based on tool kits of the IMO e-navigation for SOLAS ships and services of SMART-navigation, which is the Korean approach to implementing the e-navigation concept for both SOLAS ships and non-SOLAS ships.

The processes and the methodologies that are used by the IMO to assess the effects of e-navigation are investigated. The vessel accidents for all ships in Korean waters and all Korean-flagged ships worldwide during the 5 years from 2009 to 2013 are analyzed. The formula is proposed to calculate the effects of e-navigation on reducing accidents, which can also be used by other Member States of the IMO when they implement e-navigation in their waters. The direct causes of accidents, which are reducible by the risk control options (RCOs), and the RCOs, which are applicable to non-SOLAS ships, are identified.

By PEDRO SEVERINO DE LIMA FILHO | Investigation of any casualty involving vessels engaged on international voyages includes verification on the status of life-saving appliances and radio communications equipment. In many cases it has been found that automatic activation of liferafts and emergency position indicating radio beacons (EPIRBs) failed, although the vessel was certified, classified, regularly inspected and surveyed. As such, the vessel theoretically possessed documented procedures and check-lists for weekly and monthly verifications of life-saving appliances and radio communications equipment. Thus, in this dissertation it is investigated the reasons for deficiencies of float-free arrangements for liferafts and EPIRBs; it is examined the continuous improvement of requirements and technological evolution of the appliances; and it is reviewed the commitment and attitudes of the sectors responsible for safeguards against identified risks.

A 3-page document summarising the Topic | Moisture damage is the source of a significant number of cargo claims. Claimants allege that this is brought about by the ship’s failure to ventilate correctly, resulting in the development of condensation (known as “sweat”). This sweat can lead to the deterioration of a number of bulk cargoes such as grain, seedcake and steel surfaces. All modern bulk carriers are fitted with some form of ventilation, either natural or mechanical, which can be used to minimise the formation of sweat.

This publication is the result of joint industry collaboration between the Risk Management/ Marine Risk Control Departments of the UK P&I Club and Marine Cargo Insurers Allianz Global Corporate & Specialty with expert independent input from Cwaves, a London based Marine Surveying and Consultancy Company.
Published by The Standard P&I Club.
damage to cargo | deterioration |liability to damage |decay |measurement|methods of packing | stowage |dunnaging| handling | stevedores | safety of the ship| stable and seaworthy ship | compartments | shifting | tainting | sweating | broaching of cargo | trim |draught marks |heel-list | load lines
Golden Bollard 2017


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