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TLV is the concentration of any gases in the air, in which working for long periods (8-hour daily) will not adversely effect the Workers.
The bulk carriage of dangerous cargo, includes many Toxic chemicals in liquid and solid forms.
They emits gases and the workers (here the seafarers and the stevedores) will get effected if they comes in touch of them during routine sounding operations, loading & discharging of the DG cargo and also during some malfunction.
There they should have Safety instruments like HC analysers,dragger tube type chemical analysers, etc. to keep monitoring the TLV of hydrocarbon or any other toxic gases in their enviornment.
2. Cargo Containment
It would be appreciated that if the cargo is of dangerous in nature, it should remain contain during loading, discharging,carriage and also have a moderate degree of containment to increase survival capability in a damaged condition.
Codes like International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (IBC Code) AND Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (BCH Code), emphasizes the construction of ship with the special attention of Containment of cargo.
Certain hydrocarbons compounds have a tendency to polymerize with time, accelerated by heat, light, sometimes air or other matter such as rust. Polymerization means that several molecules of the same kind binding together to bigger molecules(Chemically most cargoes are monomers, which means that they, before any polymerization, consist of single molecules.). The compound tends to become more viscous or eventually solidify. Heat is liberated , which accelerates further polymerization.
This blocks the cargo transfer pipelines and other associated passages of the ship.
4. Crew Safety
This is the most important factor to be considered while designing and operation of the Ships carrying Dangerous cargo in bulk.
The crew is to be provided all the personal safety equipment like the proper protective equipments in the form of chemical suits ,safety shoes, eye-visor,helmets,etc as well as safety indiacting instrument like HC detector,oxygen analysers, chemical analysers etc.
The construction of the ship is also the prime factor in maintaining the safety of crew of the ship.