Sign in with Facebook
  • |
Our Community
Latest Jobs
Latest Videos
Our Blog
Latest Events
  • Home
    Home This is where you can find all the blog posts throughout the site.
  • Categories
    Categories Displays a list of categories from this blog.
  • Admin's Log
    Admin's Log
  • Tags
    Tags Displays a list of tags that have been used in the blog.
  • Bloggers
    Bloggers Search for your favorite blogger from this site.
  • Team Blogs
    Team Blogs Find your favorite team blogs here.
  • Login
    Login Login form

Maritime Blogs

Blogs by Maritime Community

Are You Aware of All the Three Sections of Steering and Sailing

Posted by on in Maritime Blog
  • Font size: Larger Smaller
  • Hits: 505
  • Subscribe to this entry
  • Print

Section I (Conduct of vessel in any condition of visibility)

The rules apply in any condition of visibility (e.g., in sight or in restricted visibility).
Every vessel shall at all times maintain a proper look-out by sight and hearing as well as by all available means appropriate in the prevailing circumstances and conditions so as to make a full appraisal of the situation and of the risk of collision. 
Safe speed
Every vessel shall at all times proceed at a safe speed so that she can take proper and effective action to avoid collision and be stopped within a distance appropriate to the prevailing circumstances and conditions.

In determining a safe speed the following factors shall be among those taken into account:

(a) By all vessels:

  • (i) the state of visibility;
  • (ii) the traffic density including concentrations of fishing vessels or any other vessels;
  • (iii) the maneuvrability of the vessel with special reference to stopping distance and turning ability in the prevailing conditions;
  • (iv) at night the presence of background light such as from shore lights or from back scatter of her own lights;
  • (v) the state of wind, sea and current, and the proximity of navigational hazards;
  • (vi) the draught in relation to the available depth of water.

(b) Additionally, by vessels with operational radar:

  • (i) the characteristics, efficiency and limitations of the radar equipment;
  • (ii) any constraints imposed by the radar range scale in use;
  • (iii) the effect on radar detection of the sea state, weather and other sources of interference;
  • (iv) the possibility that small vessels, ice and other floating objects may not be detected by radar at an adequate range;
  • (v) the number, location and movement of vessels detected by radar;
  • (vi) the more exact assessment of the visibility that may be possible when radar is used to determine the range of vessels or other objects in the vicinity.
Risk of collision
Vessels must use all available means to determine the risk of a collision, including the use of radar (if available) to get early warning of the risk of collision by radar plotting or equivalent systematic observation of detected objects. (e.g. ARPA, AIS).
If the distance of any vessel is reducing and her compass bearing is not changing much or it is a large vessel or towing vessel at close distance, or if there is any doubt, then a risk of collision shall be deemed to exist.
Action to avoid collision
Actions taken to avoid collision should be:
  • positive
  • obvious
  • made in good time
Narrow channels
  • A vessel proceeding along a narrow channel must keep to starboard.
  • Small vessels or sailing vessels must not impede (larger) vessels which can navigate only within a narrow channel.
  • Ships must not cross a channel if to do so would impede another vessel which can navigate only within that channel.
Traffic Separation Schemes
Ships must cross traffic lanes steering a course "as nearly as practicable" at right angles to the direction of traffic. This reduces confusion and enables that vessel to cross the lane as quickly as possible.
Vessel entering a traffic separation scheme should do it at an angle as small as practicable.
A traffic separation scheme does not relieve any vessel from complying with other rules.

Section II (Conduct of vessels in sight of one another)

The following rules 11–18 applies to vessels in sight of one another. (Section III has specific requirements for restricted visibility)
Sailing vessels
Two sailing vessels approaching one another must give-way as follows:
  • Port gives way to starboard. When each has the wind on a different side, the vessel which has the wind to port must give way;
  • Windward gives way to leeward. When both have the wind on the same side, the vessel which is windward must give way to the vessel which is leeward;
  • Unsure port gives way. If a vessel, with the wind on the port side, sees a vessel to windward and cannot determine whether the other vessel has the wind on the port or the starboard side, they must give way.
Notwithstanding anything contained in the Rules an overtaking vessel must keep out of the way of the vessel being overtaken. "Overtaking" means approaching another vessel at more than 22.5 degrees abaft her beam, i.e., so that at night, the overtaking vessel would see only the stern light and neither of the sidelights of the vessel being overtaken.Note that the opening words of this rule make clear that this rule overrides all other rules.
Head-on situations
When two power-driven vessels are meeting head-on both must alter course to starboard so that they pass on the port side of the other. "Head-on" means seeing the other vessel ahead or nearly ahead so that by night her masthead lights are actually or nearly lined up and/or seeing both her sidelights, or by day seeing a similar aspect of her."If you see three lights ahead, starboard wheel and show your red."
Section III (Conduct of vessels in restricted visibility)15. Crossing situations
When two power-driven vessels are crossing, the vessel which has the other on the starboard side must give way and avoid crossing ahead of her.The saying is "If to starboard red appear, 'tis your duty to keep clear."
"Act as judgement says is proper: port or starboard, back or stop her."
The give-way vessel
The give-way vessel must take early and substantial action to keep well clear.
The stand-on vessel
The stand-on vessel shall maintain her course and speed, but she may take action to avoid collision if it becomes clear that the give-way vessel is not taking appropriate action, or when so close that collision can no longer be avoided by the actions of the give-way vessel alone. In a crossing situation, the stand-on vessel should avoid turning to port even if the give-way vessel is not taking appropriate action. These options for the stand-on vessel do not relieve the give-way vessel of her obligations under the rules.
Responsibilities between vessels
Except in narrow channels, traffic separation schemes, and when overtaking (i.e., rules 9, 10, and 13)
  • power-driven vessel must give way to:
    • a vessel not under command;
    • a vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre (this may include vessels towing one another);
    • a vessel engaged in fishing;
    • a sailing vessel.
  • sailing vessel must give way to:
    • a vessel not under command;
    • a vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre;
    • a vessel engaged in fishing.
  • vessel engaged in fishing when underway shall, so far as possible, keep out of the way of:
    • a vessel not under command;
    • a vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre.
  • Any vessel other than a vessel not under command or a vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre shall, if possible, not impede the safe passage of a vessel constrained by her draft, exhibiting the signals in Rule 28.
  • A vessel constrained by her draft shall navigate with particular caution having full regard to her special condition.
Conduct of vessel in restricted visibility
(a) Rule 19 applies to vessels (not in sight of one another) in or near restricted visibility.
(b) All ships shall proceed at a safe speed for the condition of visibility (see Rule 6). A power-driven vessel shall have her engine(s) on stand-by for immediate maneuver.
(c) All ships shall comply with Section I of this Part e.g., Rules 5 (lookout), 6 (safe speed), 7 (risk of collision), 8 (action to avoid collisions), 9 (narrow channels), and 10 (TSS) with due regard for the visibility conditions.
(d) If another vessel is detected by radar alone, and a close-quarters or collision risk is suspected, a vessel should take early and substantial action to avoid the other, but:
(i) avoid any turn to port for a vessel detected forward of the beam, except for a vessel being overtaken,
(ii) avoid any change of course toward a vessel abeam or abaft the beam.
When the fog signal of another vessel is heard, apparently forward of the beam, a vessel should reduce speed to the minimum at which she can maintain her course, or if necessary stop, and navigate with extreme caution until there is no risk of collision. 
<div class="cStream-Attachment-inner-custom"><div><div style="float:left; width: 130px;margin-right: 12px;float: left;color: transparent;"><a href="/…; target="_blank"><img… style="width: 200px;height: auto;" /></div><div style="width: 75%;float: left;"><div style="font-weight: bold;font-size: 18px;margin: 0 auto 2px auto;"><a href="/…; title="…; target="_blank">Madras HC acquits all crew members of US anti-piracy ship Seaman Guard Ohio - Times of India</div><div style="margin: 0 auto 8px auto;">The Madurai bench of the Madras high court on Monday acquitted all 35 crew members and guards of the US anti-piracy ship Seaman Guard Ohio from all charges of the Arms Act.</div></div></div></div>


Latest Blogs

Will IMO sink Paris Climate Agreement?
ACROSS the river from the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) headquarters in London protester...
Selections for Diploma in Nautical Science (DNS) leading to a BSc in Applied Nautical Science (ANS) ...
Modus operandi of "ship arrests" in India
 —Capt. Ashwani Jhingan Ship arrest is a "civil law admiralty procedure" which is practically ...
World Maritime Day
The World Maritime Day is being formally celebrated by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO)...
Ballast Water Management convention - guidance and FAQS
Adopted in 2004 the Ballast Water Management, BWM Convention (the ‘convention’), is the Internationa...
Difference Between Liferaft "SOALS A" and "SOLAS B" Pack
All inflatable life rafts have an emergency pack which according to SOLAS requirement, t...
Golden Bollard 2017


The Global Maritime Community has many type of players and many are members of this Club. You may find them as per your need by using the filter below

Search Member by Rank / Role